MODIFICATIONS OF A NORMAL DIET DURING ILLNESS AND CONVALESCENCE
In addition to modifications in texture and consistency, other modifications in relative proportion of nutrients and restriction of certain nutrients are necessary with respect to the following.
- Carbohydrate: type and content
- Protein: type and content
- Fat: type and content
- Electrolytes and minerals: content
- Vitamins: content
Modification in the proportions of carbohydrates, fat and protein in the diet are necessary, as listed below.
(i) Diabetic Diet is carefully calculated for each diabetic patient to minimize hyperglycemia and glycosuria, to attain ideal body weight and to prevent, ketosis hypoglycemia and coma. In this diet proportion of carbohydrates is reduced, that of proteins is increased whereas fat is restricted.
(ii) Low Calorie Diet is presented in order to achieve weight loss especially for those suffering from cardio-vascular and rental diseases, gout or hyperthyroidism and for severely ill patients with low food tolerance. In this diet all the three energy-yielding nutrients are restricted.
(iii) High Protein, high Fat, Low Carbohydrate Diet is used for patients with hypoglycemia.
(iv) Ketogenic diet is used to control epilepsy, it is allow carbohydrate, low-protein, high-fat diet.
(v) Calorie dense diet is used in weight increasing regimes.
MODIFICATIONS IN CARBOHYDRATES
(i) Lactose Free Diet is prescribed for patients suffering from total or partial inability to metabolize lactose (milk sugar)
(ii) Dumping syndrome Diet is prescribed for patients who have undergone gastrectomy or gastric bypass surgery.
MODIFICATIONS IN FAT
(i) Restricted Fat Diets are prescribed for patients with disease of liver, gall bldder or pancreas in which disturbances of digestion and absorption of fat may occur.
(ii) Fat Controlled, low Cholesterol Diet is used for patients with increased levels of blood cholesterol and for those with atherosclerosis.
(iii) Dietary Management in hyperlipoprotineamia is required for patients suffering from elevation of blood lipoproteins.
MODIFICATIONS IN PROTEIN
(i) Restricted Protein Diet is used for patients in hepatic coma or with chronic uremia, renal disease or liver disease.
(ii) Gluten Free Diet is prescribed for patients with celiac disease or non-tropical spruce having gluten intolerance.
(iii) Restricted Purine Diet is useful in order to decrease the blood uric acid level as in gout.
(iv) High Protein Diet is required to be prescribed in several cases. They are pre and post – operative period, high fever, burns, injuries, increased metabolism, nephritis in children, chronic nephritis (unless there is nitrogen retention), pernicious anemia, ulcerative colitis, hepatitis, celiac and cystic fibrosis, tuberculosis and other wasting illness, wounds and nutritional anemia.
MODIFICATIONS IN ELECTROLYTES AND MINERALS
This may be required in the following cases.
(i) Increased Sodium diet is useful in Addison’s disease.
(ii) Restricted Sodium Diet is more common and advised for patients with cardio – vascular disease, hypertension, renal disease with swelling, cirrhosis of liver with as cites, pre-eclapsia and eclampsia and ACTH therapy.
(iii) Restricted potassium diet is used in cases where potassium is not excreted properly from the body.
(iv) Restricted copper Diet is given in wilson’s disease, Liguria or anuria.
(v) High calcium and phosphorous diet is advised in rickets, osteomalacia, tetany, dental caries and acute lead poisoning.
(vi) High iron diet is advised in nutritional or hemorrhagic anemia.
(vii) Acid ash or alkaline ash diet is responsible for producing acidity or alkalinity in the body. It is presented according to the type of kindly store depending on its solubility in acidic or alkaline urine.
MODIFICATIONS IN VITAMINSHigh vitamin diet --- Vitamin A content of the diet may be increased to combat night blindness and xeroothalmia, increased vitamin D content in rickets and osteomalacia, increased vitamin K content of the diet in liver and gall-bladder disease, increased thiamine to prevent beriberi and polyneuritis, increased niacin to prevent pellagra, increased ascorbic acid (vitamin C) to improve wound – healing and prevent survey and overall defense mechanism of body.